The herniated disc manifests itself with pain radiating from waist to leg. Lumbar disc (lumbar discopathy) is a disease caused by the cartilage structure between the vertebrae, which we call lumbar discs, to compress the nerve roots leading to the leg. The causes are usually mechanical; long posture, sitting disorders, excess weight, weakness of the waist and abdominal muscles, trauma, sudden or prolonged increase in the load on the lumbar spine and discs are the most common causes. The disc material, which disrupts by degenerating the gelatinous structure, first overflows, which is called bulging. If the disease progresses, the disc material carries more and squeezes the nerves, which is called protrusion. In the next stage, the disc material extends to the spinal canal and compresses the nerves completely, which is called extrusion.
Clinical Findings: The most obvious clinical finding of herniated disc is pain radiating from the hip to the leg. Depending on the compression of the nerve root and the degree of herniated disc, there may be numbness and loss of strength. In rare cases, urinary incontinence may also occur in very advanced cases. Lumbar hernia most often develops from the discs between the 4th and 5th vertebrae in the waist and the 5th vertebra and the sacrum bone.
Diagnosis: The patient’s history, physical examination and, if necessary, a definitive diagnosis is made by lumbar CT or MR.
Treatment: If the patient has severe pain that does not respond to medications, if there is a loss of strength in the foot or leg, urinary incontinence has occurred, surgical treatment is taken. In other cases, medical and conservative methods are preferred.