There are four main ligaments in the knee during movement that prevents the shinbone from moving abnormally below the thigh bone. These are anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, inner lateral ligament and outer lateral ligament. In daily, business and sports life, one or more of these ligaments can be injured and each ligament injury has its own unique diagnosis, treatment and natural navigational algorithm.
Ligament injuries in the knee can cause significant loss of power. The anterior cruciate ligament, which is the most frequently broken in these ligaments and the most frequently studied in orthopedic clinics.
Sport affects the biological, psychological and social structure of people positively. For this reason, people start sports at an early age and do sports until late ages. However, sports-related injuries and anterior cruciate ligament problems are also increasing. The anterior cruciate ligament connects the thigh and shin bones in the joint in the knee joint. Especially during movements that require using the knee joint at high capacity, the task of the ligament is activated and the knee takes on a very important task.
The main function of the anterior cruciate ligament is to limit the abnormal movements of the knee joint in many plans. It is to prevent the shin bone from moving forward or slipping forward under the thigh bone.
What are the symptoms when anterior cruciate ligament is broken?
A serious strain occurs immediately on the knee. When the form of movement we mentioned above occurs in the knee in both sports and daily and business life, severe pain occurs with a sudden rupture sensation. The person often falls to the ground, can hear the rupture sound he may hear nearby. There is a feeling that the knee is displaced. The athlete cannot usually continue the sport. Depending on the bleeding in the knee, swelling occurs in the knee within the first 1-2 hours. Depending on pain and swelling, movement limitation occurs in the knee and limping occurs. If there is no mechanical knee problem (such as dislocated meniscus tear, cartilage-bone fracture) that accompanies and locks the knee even if there is no treatment of the knee, swelling, contraction and pain in the knee will decrease within a few weeks.
Knee movements open, limping disappears and the person returns to his daily life almost as if he had a normal knee joint. But especially during movements such as sudden turning, slowing down, jumping from somewhere, a feeling of emptiness and distrust appear in the knee.
When the person wants to increase the activity level or needs it, knee turns and gaps occur from time to time. Injury, cartilage and meniscus injuries occur during these episodes of rotation. When the knees of the people whose cruciate ligament was disconnected and meniscus intact and without cruciate ligament surgery were followed, 80% of meniscus was also torn after one year. Nowadays, the broken cross link can be reconstructed. However, it is not possible to repair tissues such as Meniscus and cartilage except in exceptional cases.
People with anterior cruciate ligament can strengthen their knees, develop their own reflex paths and carry out their daily life activities and can do sports activities provided they are at a low level. However, it is possible that a knee-swing movement may occur in his knees. It is not possible for people with broken cruciate ligament to do sports such as football, basketball, handball, volleyball, ski at a high level, or to continue their business and life that require using the series at high capacity. If the person or athlete has the job or lifestyle that requires using the knee at high capacity, if he / she wants to continue using the knee without anterior cruciate ligament, an irreversible secondary knee problem will also be inevitable.
What To Do When The First Injury?
Persons experiencing knee rotation, severe pain and restricted mobility in the area or in the daily environment should admit that there is ligament injury or fracture in the knee until proven otherwise. The activity should not be continued. Loading an injured string further increases the current problem or causes additional injuries. The first thing to do in such a knee injury is to relieve the knee joint from the load. In other words, if it is possible for the athlete or patient not to step on the injured knee, it should be carried on a stretcher, or supported by crutches or under the armpits and carried on one leg and carried to the hospital. In the meantime, bandaging and ice application should be done in a way that does not tighten the knee and edema, bleeding and pain control should be helped and the person should be directed to the nearest health institution.
Ali YILMAZ, M.D.
Orthopedics and Traumatology Specialist